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Science Features : MLS

science feature N2O measurements are key to quantifying the photochemical and transport processes that affect Arctic spring ozone
The Arctic seasonal evolution of simulated O3 and the long lived trace gas N2O from the Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry and Transport Model (GMI CTM) both closely agree with MLS observations for all years since Aura's launch in 2004.
science feature Large ozone holes will continue to occur in very cold Antarctic winters until 2040
The next three decades will see an end of the era of big ozone holes. In a new study, scientists from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center say that the ozone hole will be consistently smaller than 8 million square miles by the year 2040.
science feature The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in Tropical Winds Controls Chlorine Variability inside the Antarctic Ozone Hole
A decade of MLS Nitrous oxide reveals a remarkable transport pipeline from the midlatitude middle stratosphere to the Antarctic lower stratosphere, allowing tropical winds to modulate how much chlorine reaches the Antarctic ozone hole each year.
science feature Low ozone over Europe doesn't mean the sky is falling, it's actually rising
To quantitatively understand anthropogenic impacts to the stratospheric ozone layer, we must be able to distinguish between low ozone caused by ozone depleting substances and that caused by natural dynamical variability in the atmosphere.
Ozone featureA Deep Ozone Hole in Spite of Low Chlorine: How Transport Affects Chemistry
MLS ClO in the 2011 Antarctic vortex was 20% lower than 2006, yet the 2011 ozone hole is very similar to the 2006 hole, the largest ever observed.

OMI featureDestruction of Mesospheric Arctic Ozone Caused by Solar Protons
Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations quantify the changes in the hydroxyl radical (OH), hydrogen dioxide (HO2), and ozone due to Solar Proton Events (SPE)
HIRDLS featureHydroxyl radical (OH) response to the 11-year solar cycle
OH data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura and a ground-based FTUVS suggest a response of the OH column to the solar cycle that is significantly larger than model results using established solar forcing.
 What caused unusually low Arctic O3 in Spring 2011?
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on NASA's Aura shows weaker than usual ozone transport and strong photochemical loss
 Aura MLS observations of unprecedented 2011 Arctic ozone loss
Unusually prolonged cold conditions in the spring 2011 Arctic stratosphere promoted levels of chlorine activation and chemical ozone loss never before observed in the Arctic, comparable to those in the Antarctic in some winters.
Aerosol-Clouds-Water Vapor InteractionsAerosol-Clouds-Water Vapor Interactions
The properties of the polluted clouds indicate a warming and moistening effect on air entering the stratosphere by the pollutants in Asia.
OMI IcelandStrongest El Niño Event Since Aura Launch
Aura MLS observations show clear imprint of 2010 El Niño in the upper troposphere
Aura Science Result Image'Double Record Breaker'
2006 Antarctic Ozone Hole seen by MLS

Prolonged low temperatures in September 2006 increased by the longevity of 'active chlorine', leading to a record area and depth of the ozone hole.
OMI & MLS Tropospheric Ozone mapsFirst global tropospheric maps show streams of tropospheric ozone crossing the oceans
OMI & MLS can estimate the tropospheric ozone residual by subtracting the MLS stratospheric ozone from OMI column ozone. These maps show pollution streaming from the U.S., Europe and China to the west in summer and pollution from biomass burning in the equatorial zone.
MLS Cloud IceFirst Global Measurement of Cloud Ice in Upper Troposphere
Cloud ice measurement will improve global circulation models used for weather and climate forecasts.
The measurements will also help quantify the upper tropospheric hydrological cycle, including water vapor feedbacks on climate change.
MLS Sub-Visual CirrusFirst Maps of Sub-Visual Cirrus in the Upper Tropical Troposphere
MLS sees cloud ice, but HIRDLS sees the clouds themselves, even clouds that are so thin that people cannot see them. Just as in the MLS cloud ice map we see large amounts of this cirrus in regions of significant cloud ice.
CO pertubationMeasurement of CO in Upper Troposphere
CO is a signature of pollution and can be transported a long way from its source. Not surprisingly, that transport can be vertical as well as horizontal. These images show how CO detected in the lower stratosphere can tell us something about where convection is occurring.
HCI measurementsContinuous measurement of HCl in stratosphere
The continuous measurement of HCl in the stratosphere shows the rapid recovery of this major chlorine reservoir after polar ozone loss, and continues the long-term measurements from UARS HALOE. Monitoring HCl tells us about ozone loss processes and the recovery of the ozone layer.
OH MEasurementsFirst Measurement of OH in the Middle Stratosphere
The MLS measurements of OH and HO2 have provided the first tests of global stratospheric hydrogen chemistry and resolved the disagreement between model estimates of OH and earlier observations - these data suggest earlier observations are suspect.
Aura Science Result ImageThe Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder
As tropical air rises into the stratosphere it carries with it trace gases, such as CFC's that are responsible for ozone depletion.
Aura Science Result ImageDestruction of Arctic Ozone this Winter
An unprecedended suite of simultaneous measurements by MLS allows more accurate quantification of ozone destruction in the 2004-2005 Arctic winter.
Aura Science Result ImageMLS detects SO2 and HCI injected into the stratosphere by the 27 January 2005 New Guinea Manam volcano.
These images show MLS detection of enhanced SO2 and HCI in the lower stratosphere over New Guinea on January 28, following eruption of Manam volcano on January 27.
Aura Science Result ImageMLS Water Vapor and Pressure
Time-pressure sections of zonally averaged water vapor mixing ratio, shown as the deviation from the time-mean profile.
Aura Science Result ImageMLS HCI - Observations of Antarctic Polar Vortex Breakup
Maps of MLS HCI in the lower stratosphere (520 K, 20km) detailing the springtime breakup of the 2004 Antarctic vortex.
Aura Science Result ImageSolar Proton Flare Affects Mesospheric OH and Ozone
Aura MLS has provided first observation of this connection





Goddard Space Flight Center